Frenkel Guisado-Bourzac and Juan Carlos Moreno-Guisado
Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba
Chemical methods currently employed for monitoring pollution are mainly based on qualitative and quantitative detection of contaminants. They provide indirect information and no direct biological interpretation of damage in these ecosystems. Often, anthropic effect provides a multi-pollutant environment where exact composition requires a difficult full screening and specific contribution to biological damage of each pollutant results hard to determine. In such cases, molecular biomarkers constitute a first approach for gathering information about cell damage and antioxidant response, signals of ecosystems disorders. A processing solution when pollution resistant species are small in size is provided. Proposed methodology comprises dissection in three morpho-physiological regions, each one associated to key organs for toxicological studies (front: brain and gills; medium: liver and kidneys and rear: muscles). Statistical processing for this methodology is provided. Direct spectrophotometric measurements of total dissolved proteins, H2O2, MDA-like reaction products, ascorbate and NADH+NADPH at homogenates liquid phase are proposed. A better response is founded at medium, front and rear region in this order. This methodology allows a fast, economic and initial approach when specific determinations are not needed. Thus, biomonitoring of freshwater bodies’ conditions using this methodology may provide important information when ecosystems damage can still be reverted.
Keywords: pollution biomonitoring, cell damage, antioxidant response, total dissolved proteins, H2O2, MDA-like reaction products, ascorbato, NADH+NADPH.