Frenkel Guisado-Bourzac and Juan Carlos Moreno-Guisado
Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba
Fish are sensitive organisms to changes caused by oxidative stress inducing agents, due to expression in these organisms of biological changes based on the quality of the environment at cellular, individual, populations or community level. They serve as signals of possible alterations suffering by the ecosystem due to anthropogenic activities, that’s why they are considered key elements to assess the ecological status of rivers. With the goal to evaluate Gambusia punctata as a biomodel of ecosystem biological damage associated with oxidative stress and cell REDOX potential due to anthropogenic effect, different criteria were analysed: ubiquitous distribution in Cuba, easy taxonomic identification, appropriate size, limited mobility, relatively long life cycle, tolerant to contamination, easy handling for laboratory studies and proven correlation between environmental pollution and bioaccumulation of metals and other xenobiotics for this species. Increase in multi-pollutants levels, followed by physical-chemical determination, was positively correlated with molecular determinations. Ionic strength of freshwater bodies are due to anthropic effects and reflects cell damage in G. punctata and an adaptation response correlated (R2>0.9519) with conductivity and total soluble solids. G. punctata fulfill all standards as a biomonitor for evaluation of different molecular biomarkers of oxidative stress and cell response related to pollution.
Keywords: Gambusia punctata, biomodel, freshwater ecosystem, pollution, biomonitoring, conductivity, antioxidant response, oxidative stress.